A Recent Short Review in Non-Invasive Magnetic Resonance Imaging on Assessment of HCC Stages: MRI Findings and Pathological Diagnosis

Muntaser Saied Ahmad, Nursakinah Suardi, Ahmad Shukri, Nik Noor Ashikin Nik Ab Razak, Ammar A. Oglat, Hjouj Mohammad


Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cancers, and it considers having resulted in mortality and morbidity in the world. It is also known as the most primary Hepatocarcinogenesis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to detect and diagnosis tumours and staging of cancer, and to predict tumour biology through biomarkers imaging. Moreover, the MRI technique is used to predict the small size of HCC, high ADC value, and fibrous capsule or pseudo-capsule. In this review, the HCC features in MRI and their implications for prognosis and diagnosis as biomarkers imaging are discussed. Furthermore, the significant findings of HCC staging during the multistep hepatocarcinogenesis are summarized through histopathology and MRI. The review also provides a good Knowledge about early HCC diagnosis, MRI contrast agents, the functional imaging application through MRI include diffusion-weighted sequences, perfusion imaging, radionics analysis, and hepatobiliary contrast agents.


Liver; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Magnetic resonance; Contrast media

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