Brain Metastases from Esophageal Cancer: A Rare Entity –An Analysis of the Incidence Reported in Literature 1982-2010

Syed Amer, Mohammed Muqeet Adnan, Muhammad Khan, Syed Hashmi, Awab Ahmed


AIM: To analyze the incidence of brain metastases in esophageal cancer based on published literature from 1982-2014. Methods: A literature search on PUBMED with key words “esophageal cancer” and “brain metastases” was performed. A total of 138 manuscripts matching the keywords were found. Eleven papers met the study requirements and were included. Results: A total of 11 studies were identified that retrospectively analyzed the incidence of brain metastases in esophageal cancer. Out of those 11, seven were conducted in the United States, three in Japan, and one in China. These studies looked at patients from 1982-2010. A total of 6,216 patients with esophageal cancer were identified and retrospectively analyzed in their respective study groups for the development of brain metastases. A total of 174 patients of the 6216 developed brain metastases; with an incidence of 2.8%. In the U.S population, 121 patients were affected, amounting to an incidence of 3.1%. The predominant histo-pathological cancers in all 11 studies were, as expected, either adenocarcinoma or squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC). Conclusion: The incidence of brain metastases from esophageal cancer is low, ranging from 2.8% to 3%. Formal and large-scale efforts are necessary to confirm the incidence and to demonstrate statistical interaction between the development of brain metastases and factors such as gender, staging, histology, treatment modality, etc. This information will be helpful for staging and planning treatment for esophageal cancer.


Esophageal cancer; Brain metastases; Iincidence analysis

Full Text: PDF HTML


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.