Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Asia

Mamun Al-Mahtab, Helal Uddin, Sheikh Mohammad Fazle Akbar


The dominant form of primary liver cancer is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Its incidence varies widely among different geographical areas (from <2 to >50 per 100,000 males/year), reaching peak values in some countries of Southeast Asia. The incidence, prevalence and risk factors of HCC exhibit marked differences among different countries of Asia and also among different regions of the same country. The numbers of patients with HCC are increasing in many Asian countries. It is expected that the incidence of HCC will also increase in the foreseeable future because the burden of chronic liver disease is increasing owing to increasing rates of hepatitis B and C prevalence, obesity-related fatty liver diseases, alcoholism, and other risk factors. Better understandings about epidemiology and risk factors of HCC in Asian countries would allow development of more effective control and management strategies against HCC in these countries.


Hepatocellular carinoma; Risk factor; Asia; Increased incidence

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