Immune Modulation by Microbiota Sources: Effects of Aloe vera gel and Butyrate

Akira Yagi, Byung Pal Yu


The role of gut microbiota and its related activities, like fermentation in immune modulation, are well documented. It was found that acemannan (AM), the extract of aloe leaf gel can exerts significant immune modulating activity. AM has been shown to activate macrophages and stimulate T cells that are involved in the defense against harmful microorganisms by likely acting as an adjuvant for health and disease. However, it should be noted that commercially available AM preparation used for these studies often contains a complex mixture because partially purified carbohydrate preparation containing about 60% acetylated mannan together with other carbohydrates, especially pectin, hemicellulose, and lectins. The beneficial effects of endogenous butyrate productions, delivery, and absorption by colonocytes have been well documented. Mechanistically, butyrate exerts its functions by acting as a histone deacetylase inhibitor or signaling through several G-protein-coupled receptors. Recently, butyrate has received particular attentions for its beneficial effects on intestinal homeostasis and energy metabolism.


Immune modulation; Aloe vera gel; Butyrate

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