Liver Dysfunction in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients on DOTS: A Study and Review

Abha Pandit, Abhay Kumar Pandey

Abstract


Context: Phenomenal number of people suffers tuberculosis and is prescribed primary line DOTS antitubercular chemotherapy. Evidence based clinical practice to minimize risk of hepatotoxicity is primary imperative.

Aim: Study generates evidence for predicting individual hepatotoxic risk using patient’s constitutional and health parameters and disease characteristics and adopting right course of management. It is observational study in patients consecutively selected by defined inclusion and exclusion criteria.

Methods: Newly enrolled pulmonary tuberculosis patients for DOTS were studied to examine host and disease specific predictors of hepatotoxicity risk. Pretreatment baseline liver function tests and eGFR were done. Development of hepatotoxicity was watched by monthly monitoring of liver enzymes and bilirubin serum profiles.

Result: The selected 148 patients were older and four fifths were males. 16 patients developed ATT-DIH at first or second month monitoring following DOTS. They were more undernourished, hypoproteinaemic, bore more extensive disease and were sputum AFB positive. Their eGFR profiles were normal but significantly lower and plasma antioxidant capacity significantly reduced. Oxidative stress marker levels also were insignificantly raised. They exhibited subclinical elevation of serum enzymes AST and ALT .No significant influence of age and gender was seen on incidence of ATT-DIH.

Conclusion: Frailty with extensive disease constituted phenotype vulnerable to ATT-DIH. Hypoalbuminaemia, reduced plasma antioxidant capacity, subclinical elevated profile of transaminases before starting DOTS were forewarning laboratory indices. LFT ought to be monitored at fortnight, a month and at 2 months in such patients as minimum necessity to timely detect and address hepatotoxicity.


Keywords


DOTS; Primary antitubercular drugs; Hepatotoxicity; transaminases; monitoring in tuberculosis

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