Putative Prophylaxes of Aloe vera Latex and Inner Gel as Immunomodulator

Akira Yagi


Some of the phytochemicals present in Aloe vera can provide relief to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients through promoting wound healing as well as reducing inflammation and relieving pain, which are common symptoms of RA patients. Emodin in Aloe vera latex inhibited various inflammation kinases and signaling pathways in vitro and in vivo models of pancreatitis, arthritis and atherosclerosis. Novel molecular targets of emodin have been revealed in therapeutic uses based on animal studies, but only limited data related to the bioavailability, pharmacokinetics and metabolism of emodin are available till now. Western blot and quantitative PCR confirmed aloe emodin in Aloe vera latex up-regulating galectin-3 expression; recombinant galectin-3 augmented expression of antiviral genes IFN-β/r, PKR and 2’,5’-oligoadenylate synthase in infected cells, agreeing with expression pattern of those treated with aloe emodin. Galectin-3 which is a β-galactoside-binding animal protein, is evolutionarily highly conserved and it has been demonstrated in RA patients to advance the transformation of synovial fluid into fibrotic tissue, in addition to activating osteoclasts, producing severe debilitation in patients. More work of emodin and aloe emodin needs to done to fully translate the observed preclinical findings in RA and related complications. Aloe pectins obtained from Aloe vera inner leaf gel were distinguished by size: the room temperature extraction generated a high molecular weight (HMW), whereas extraction with heating produced a low molecular weight pectin. The HMW aloe pectin calcium gel is highly efficient encapsulating agent suitable for controlled release of pharmacological substance, such as protein, antibodies and vaccines. Inhibition of galectin-3 mediated cellular interaction by pectin from dietary sources, such as citrus pectin, was revealed through haemagglutination significantly. The up-regulation of galectin-3 expression by potential therapeutics, such as emodin, aloe emodin, aloe pectin was focused in present review. In addition, protein and/or lectin having anti-inflammatory, radical scavenging and anti-oxidant enzymes’ activity in Aloe vera gel were fully expected as putative prophylactic and biological response modifiers in the treatment of a broad range of inflammatory diseases such as RA.


Putative prophylaxes; Aloe vera latex and inner gel; Aloe pectin/protein/lectin; Immunomodulator

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