Growth Differentiation Factor 15 As Promising Biomarker Of Poor Prognosis In Heart Failure

Alexander E Berezin

Abstract


Heart failure (HF) is a major factor contributing to premature death in patients with established cardiovascular (CV) disease. There is a large body of evidence that biological markers presumably natriuretic peptides, galectin-3, soluble ST2 and cardiac troponins could be the best tool for prediction of poor clinical outcomes in general population as well as in individuals with suspected or established CV diseases including HF. However, recent clinical trials have shown that abilities of these biomarkers regarding identification of morbidity and mortality risks distinguished in wide range and depended on numerous factors, i.e. age, sex, comorbidities, treatment regime and phenotypes of HF. Additionally, not all of these biomarkers except natriuretic peptides were best fitted to guided therapy of HF and consequently serial measures of them did not warrant improving of predictive value in follow-up especially in patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. Growth-differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) belongs to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily that regulates mitochondrial function of wide range of cells that involve in inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, immune reaction, fibrosis, reparation and malignancy. This editorial is depicted the possibilities to extrapolate the predictive capabilities of GDF-15 from metabolic and tumor diseases to CV diseases including HF.

Keywords


Heart failure; Cardiovascular disease; Biomarkers; Growth-differentiation factor-15; Prognosis; Clinical outcomes; Predictive value

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