EEG-fMRI Co-Registration: From Research to a Potential Pre-Surgical Tool

Ashalatha Radhakrishnan, Mahalaxmi Ganjoo, Anu Sundar, Anuvitha Chandran, Sujesh Sreedharan, Ramshekhar Menon, Bejoy Thomas, Chandrashekharan Kesavadas


Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) are validated modalities for identifying neuronal activity and they are complementary in that fMRI offers high spatial resolution while EEG provides high temporal resolution. Hence integration of these two modalities would in turn be a promising tool to delineate a focal ictal onset zone, both as part of research and for focal resection of the same zone to abolish drug-resistant seizures This review focuses on this new technique with details of the biophysical difficulties encountered, methodology with relevant EEG-fMRI integration studies in epilepsy research and emphasis on its application as a potential presurgical evaluation tool in evaluation of drug resistant epilepsy.


Inter-ictal epileptiform discharges; Ictal onset zone; Epileptogenic zone; EEG; Functional MRI; Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal

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